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Renaissance readers perceived the print book as both a thing and a medium - a thing that could be broken or reassembled, and a visual medium that had the power to reflect, transform, or deceive. At the same historical moment that print books remediated the visual and material structures of manuscript and oral rhetoric, the relationship between vision and perception was fundamentally called into question.


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Investigating this crisis of perception, Pauline Reid argues that the visual crisis that suffuses early modern English thought also imbricates sixteenth- and seventeenth-century print materials. These vision troubles in turn influenced how early modern books and readers interacted. Platonic, Aristotelian, and empirical models of sight vied with one another in a culture where vision had a tenuous relationship to external reality. Save UP TO Contesting theories of print as a monologic, uniform, and unifying form, Reading by Design investigates 16th and 17th century print as a uniquely multi-sensory and interactive medium.

By Pauline Reid. Memory Machines or Ephemera? You are about to donate to the Champlain Society. This will add your donation to your shopping cart. To checkout, click the shopping cart in the upper right corner of your screen, and proceed with the checkout process.

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Donations to the Champlain Society are fully tax-deductible and receipts will be mailed out in the new year. In your shopping cart Recently added item s You have no items in your shopping cart. Home Reading by Design. Wolf narrates the tale from his point of view and explains how the events that unfolded were due to a "misunderstanding. Wolf was simply trying to borrow a cup of sugar, the pigs' houses collapsed due to his uncontrollable sneezes, and he consumed two of the little porkers because of his aversion to wasting food.

Kirstin drew a red brick house, a pink pig outside the house, and clouds and a sun in the sky. Kirstin's dictated sentences were "The pig was building his brick house. He was the smart pig of the family-the bright one. Sue's response to the The Three Pigs Wiesner, was also an example of interdependent storytelling where her text extended her pictures. In Wiesner's version of the traditional tale of The Three Little Pigs , the wolf blows the first pig right out of the story! The text continues, but there is no pig "in the story" for the wolf to devour. Once the second and third pigs exit the "original" story, the adventure really begins.

New narratives are created as the pigs explore other stories and when characters leave their original stories and consequently change those stories to join the three pigs. A dragon and the cat from Hey Diddle Diddle accompany the pigs when they return to their original tale. Sue drew a dragon on her page-a beautiful long dragon with green and yellow scales.

The need for a visual metalanguage

Her sentences were "This is the dragon and the pigs eating food at the end of the story. I liked when the dragon came out of the frame. Finally, an example of interdependent storytelling where a student's pictures extended the text and the text extended the pictures was Teresa's response see Fig. Teresa appropriated the illustrator's unique illustrative framing device and created three frames. In the outer frame, Teresa drew birds depicted as V's and lines to represent water. In the middle frame, Teresa drew the heads of nine girls-each girl had hair, eyes, and a circle for a mouth.

The inside frame had four girls, again with open mouths, but these girls had complete bodies. Teresa included spots i. She did not color her picture. She dictated several sentences when she talked about her picture: "It was funny. The middle frame was funny because they had a funny song. Centre was funny because they had mud. The outside was serious because it was beautiful and I liked it. This [second frame] is the one where they were singing. The outside one is from the cover. In Katie's visual response see Fig.

The book is organized into nine chapters and an epilogue.

Actions by Albert and his horse June in Chapter 1 activate a dramatic chain of events e. However, the characters in Shortcut go about their lives unaware of the actions of the other characters in the book.

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[] Visual Question Answering as Reading Comprehension

Katie drew Albert and June and their cart of watermelons. She drew the bridge, made out of bricks, that Albert and June crossed weekly on their journey to town to sell their watermelons. Katie depicted water under the bridge with wavy lines, and she included the crest on the bridge. She drew three of the four symbols that appear in the sections of the bridge's crest and that symbolize events in the book.

Katie did not color her pictures. She dictated the following sentences to Mrs. He throws money into the water 'cause he wants his wish to come true. Table 1 presents a quantitative analysis of the first-grade students' work. The number of responses varies for each book because of student absences. However, it is important to note that the children's visual images varied in complexity in the parallel storytelling category.

For example, for Shortcut , Dom's dictated sentence was "My favourite part was when the train hit Pearl because it was funny. In contrast, Patty's illustrations for Willy the Dreamer were more complex with respect to detail. Her sentence was "I'm drawing about Willy the Dreamer being the king. Interestingly, Patty colored one of Willy's shoes red and the other one green.

In the illustration in the book, Willy is wearing shoes with buckles. However, on the cover and on the first recto, Willy is portrayed with his trademark one green sock and one red sock. The children's dictated sentences provided additional information than represented in their pictures. Variation occurred across children and across texts with respect to the number of examples of parallel and interdependent storytelling.

Discover your unique LEARNING STYLE: Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic

Although each first-grade student had at least one example of parallel storytelling, all the responses of only one child, who was absent for two books, were classified as parallel storytelling. Willy the Dreamer Browne, , the first book I read aloud to the children, had the most examples of parallel storytelling, perhaps because its narrative style is vignette in nature as each page tells a "story" about one of Willy's dreams.

Analyzing children's visual and verbal texts quantitatively using general categories fails to capture the richness and complexity of the children's work. The categorization scheme used in this study is not the quintessential method for examining relationships between young children's visual and verbal texts. Further, my descriptive classification system is not to be interpreted as hierarchical or qualitative in nature.

Rather, the categorization scheme provides one way to talk about the dynamic and complex relationship between two modes of expression and emphasizes the advantages of looking at children's work as a gestalt, honoring both text and pictures. Similar to the various typologies that have been developed to describe the text-image relationships in picture books, several schemes could be generated to examine the text and visual relationships in the children's work. Alternative methods of analysis would reveal additional information. Regardless of the categorization scheme used to examine students' work, it is essential for teachers to "read" children's visual images, as well as their text, and to consider the multifaceted nature of the responses.

Young children's oral and written language abilities influence the quality and quantity of their "words," and representational responses provide another medium for children to express themselves. Graham , writing about illustrations in picture books, states that many "layers of meaning are only accessible through the illustrations" p.

I believe Graham's statement is applicable to children's visual representations as well. Indeed, in their study, Arizpe and Styles found that the drawings of the younger children "often showed understandings they were unable to articulate" p. Margaret Meek criticizes those reading experts who are "casual about texts" when describing the reading process p.

She writes about the private lessons readers give themselves as they interact with texts and states that "if we want to see what lessons have been learned from the texts children read, we have to look for them in what they write" p. As stated previously, the relationship between the text and images in each of the eight picture books used in this study was interdependent storytelling. For seven of the eight picture books, at least one-half of the children's visual and verbal texts were categorized as interdependent storytelling.

Thus, to a certain extent, the children's images and text emulated the interdependent storytelling nature of the picture books. Although the students were encouraged to take a very active role in the construction of meaning during the interactive read-aloud sessions, we did not engage in an analysis of the illustrative techniques and styles in the picture books.

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However, teachers can certainly take advantage of outstanding-quality picture books to not only provide pleasurable reading experiences but to teach children about artistic styles and the grammars of visual images and visual design in picture books Lewis, Arizpe and Styles write about the influence of two educators in their study: "Both teachers had clearly influenced the children in the receptive and productive modes, as artists Students need to be taught how to read illustrations, and to be given time to think and talk about the art in picture books e.

Students' developing visual literacy skills may then be reflected in their work. Further, I believe it is fundamental for children to have opportunities to discuss their own work. Because of time restrictions, as well as the focus of the research, the first-grade children participating in this study did not share their drawings with their peers.

Discussing the students' drawings in a whole-class context would have provided a further opportunity to talk about the children's work and the relationships between their visual representations and their written text. The children's drawings in the study by Arizpe and Styles communicated the children's knowledge and emotional responses to the picture books and revealed understandings that the children were unable to express verbally p.

After reading a book or listening to a read-aloud, students are asked to express their thinking about the a story by "sketching lines, colors, shapes, symbols or pictures.. The sketches are metaphorical by nature, so it is impossible to have literal retellings" or favorite parts Whitin, , p. Whitin found that the sketch-to-stretch strategy promoted a deeper understanding of books, encouraged a variety of perspectives, nurtured a collaborative and respective community, and was used successfully by students of varying abilities.

Gardner's , multiple intelligences framework reminds us of the importance of developing children's abilities to comprehend and interpret various sign systems, and to communicate using various modes of expression i. As Hughey and Slack note, "When children use a combination of drawing and narrating, the linguistic and spatial multiple intelligences reinforce each other" p.